LIMITATIONS OF MOTION: HIP JOINT Of the techniques provided in the preceding list, the one recommended by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Medical Association (AMA) places the least emphasis on controlling pelvic motion.1,10. Hip joint flexion varied from 90 to 150 degrees (mean 120"), extension from 0 to 35 degrees (mean 9.5"), abduction from 15 to 55 degrees (mean 38.5"), adduction from 15 to 45 degrees (mean 30.5"), internal rotation from 20 to 50 degrees (mean 32.5"), and external Table I. Fastrack System by Polhemus 3Space, Colchester, Vermont. A good example of this is Boone and Azen (1979) who found normal hip extension to be 10 degrees, whereas Dorinson and Wagner (1948) found it to be 50 degrees. Modified from Reese NB: Muscle and Sensory Testing 2nd ed. Rotation of the hip is generally measured with the patient’s hip in 90 degrees of flexion (patient seated) or with the hip in the anatomical position of 0 degrees of extension (patient prone or supine). This motion is a sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction and is not normally measured with a goniometer. Likewise, full hip extension requires that the knee is extended, and in this position, motion is limited by tension in the iliofemoral ligament. If either of these functions is inadequate there will be muscle imbalance and the gait pattern will be com… To measure degrees of flexion using the goniometer, the zero is on the ankle and the 180 on the hip. Movement at the hip, which occurs in all three of the cardinal planes, consists of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. Performing passive movement yields an estimate of the ROM and demonstrates to patient exact motion desired (see Fig. Hip flexion and extension images. However, care should be taken, as always, to use identical techniques whenever repeated measures are taken, in that the amount of motion may vary depending on patient position and the instrument chosen.3,11,34 The techniques described in this text for measuring hip rotation include those in both seated and prone positions with the goniometer and the inclinometer. Hip should not be flexed past the point at which pelvic motion begins to occur (as detected by superior movement of ipsilateral ASIS under examiner’s stabilizing hand). After instructing patient in motion desired, stabilize ipsilateral pelvis with one hand and flex patient’s hip through available ROM with other hand. A one-minute rest was given to the subjects between each measure. Because there appears to be no difference in the reliability of measurements of hip rotation taken with the hip flexed or extended,34 and because information is mixed regarding whether the inclinometer or the goniometer is most reliable for measuring hip rotation ROM3 the examiner may choose either method or instrument for performing measurements of this motion. In this video, HYLETE Community Captain Thomas DeLauer will explain why improving hip extension is important. Some 25% of the variation in disability levels could be accounted for by differences in ROM. Other techniques recommended for measuring hip flexion and extension use landmarks on the trunk or the examining table for alignment of the stationary arm of the goniometer.1,10,24 The danger in using these landmarks is the possibility that lumbar motion may be included in measurements of hip motion, thus creating unreliable goniometric measurements. 4. 0-45. Starting position for measurement of hip flexion. Hip External Rotation ROM. If the hip is flexed with the knee extended, tension in the hamstring muscles limits the motion. Conversely, the inclinometer yielded significantly greater measurements of hip flexion and extension than did the goniometer. Selspot Data Acquisition System by Selective Electronic Company (SELCOM), Molndal, Sweden. Palpate following bony landmarks (shown in Fig. The articular capsule of the hip joint is strong and is crossed by three ligaments that provide additional reinforcement. 11-1). Measurements of iliotibial (IT) band tightness, attained through this method, have been shown to have high reliability.33 Although measurement of hip abduction and adduction with the inclinometer is not demonstrated in this chapter, measurement of IT band tightness using this technique may be found in Chapter 14. At the hip joint, the femur meets the pelvis. Research has involved the examination of a variety of functional activities, including walking on level surfaces,15,29,30,32,36 ascending and descending stairs,16,20,31 sitting onto and rising from a chair (Fig. 0-150. The hip is a ball-and-socket joint that consists of an articulation between the convex head of the femur and the concave acetabulum of the pelvis, or hip bone (Fig. Several studies investigating motion of the hip joint during functional activities are described in the literature. Hip internal rotation (medial): 30 to 40 degrees. Fig. The hip is maintained in 0 degrees of extension throughout the measurement.1,10,24 However, hip abduction occasionally is measured with the ipsilateral hip maintained in 90 degrees of flexion throughout the measurement.10 This technique appears to be used primarily in the pediatric population and may be less reliable than measurement of hip abduction with the hip extended.7 Hip abduction and adduction also may be measured with an inclinometer if the subject is placed in a side-lying position. Total Hip Replacement. Clinically, this agrees with what Dan said that SIJ/hip ROM and LBP are related through the above studies. 0-40. The range of 180-360 degrees is not factored in, presumably because the lower leg cannot move in an entire circle! Normal end-feels for hip extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation are firm, as a result of capsular and ligamentous limitations of motion. Hip extension. Although Kaltenborn16 agrees that lateral rotation is the least limited, he states that medial rotation is most limited, followed by limitations in extension, then abduction and flexion. 2. These techniques vary in terms of patient positioning, specific landmarks used for goniometric alignment, and the degree to which each method controls for pelvic motion. Unfortunately there is great discrepancy concerning the normal ROM of the hip in the saggital plane. Hip extension ROM, knee joint position sense and dynamic balance were tested pre- and post-stretching using a digital inclinometer, an iPod touch and the Y-Balance test, respectively. The hip is a synovial ball-and-socket joint with 3 degrees of freedom. Although access to this website is not restricted, the information found here is intended for use by medical providers. 11-2 Ligamentous reinforcement of the hip joint—anterior view. Chapter 11 Only gold members can continue reading. 11-4 Hip ROM needed to rise from a seated position. Hip joint extension through posterior tilting of the pelvis Hip flexion through anterior tilting of the pelvis 34. Patient sitting or supine with hip flexed to 90 degrees and knee flexed to 90 degrees. This position is extension of the hip. Measurement of hip extension range of motion also can be accomplished using the Mundale and pelvifemoral angle techniques. 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